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How to write a paragraph in six easy steps

Kid Write Paragraph

 

The teachers at one of the schools with which we work participated in a discussion group about the importance of students becoming effective writers.  At the conclusion of the discussion, they agreed that writing skills are essential for success in college and in the work world.  They also came to a consensus that the teaching of writing in their elementary school must lay down the basics skills for writing from which students can build.

One of the teachers, Mr. Abernathy was looking for some clear steps on how to teach some of his struggling students how to write a paragraph.  He approached his coach, a JP School Improvement Specialist and she shared these six steps to writing a paragraph.  The coach, Kim, explained up front that these six steps could be done all in one lesson or may need to broken up for the more naïve students such as English Language Learners. In other words, Mr. Abernathy, needed to assess his students (something he had been doing on a consistent basis using formative assessments) and then differentiate instruction as indicated. 

Kim also explained that it was important that Mr. Abernathy bring each student to mastery on each step before moving on to the next step.

The Six Steps

Step One: Ask students to read the assignment

Example: Please write a paragraph on the favorite thing you like about yourself. Call on several students to tell the favorite thing they like about themselves. Choose one sentence to model.

Step Two: Write the main sentence

Teacher:  The first thing I need to do is write a Main Idea sentence. This is also called a topic sentence.  The Main Idea tells what the paragraph will be about. The main idea of our paragraph is to tell what is the favorite thing you like about yourself? What is the main idea or topic of our paragraph- teacher verifies: Yes, the main idea of our paragraph is “What is the Favorite Thing About Myself?”

The teacher calls on a student and asks, “What is the favorite thing you like about yourself?”

Example:

Student: I like my personality the best. The favorite thing I like about myself is my personality.

The teacher should call on several students for responses making sure each sentence starts with “The favorite thing I like about myself is ____________,” and then chooses one to model.

Teacher: Tell me what specifically about your personality you like.

Student: I like that I am friendly and make friends quickly.

Teacher: “Yes, now put that in a complete sentence.”

Student: “My favorite thing about myself is how friendly I am and how I make new friends quickly. “

The teacher should accept all reasonable answers (if necessary, model the complete sentence for the students using yourself as the subject). 

 

Step Three: 3 Rules about Sentence Writing

Teacher (As you write say), “Rule One for writing a first sentence in a paragraph. I am moving in from the margin to start the first sentence. This is called indenting. Here’s a rule: The first sentence of a paragraph is always indented. Listen again; the first sentence of a paragraph is always indented. Say the rule.

Students respond: “The first sentence of a paragraph is always indented.”

Teacher verifies: “Yes, the first sentence of a paragraph is always indented.”

Teacher: “Rule Two, I started the sentence with a capital letter. Here’s a rule. The first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter. Listen again: The first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter. Say the rule.”

Students respond:  “The first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter.”

Teacher verifies: “Yes, the first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter.”

 

Teacher: “Rule Three. This sentence tells, so I put a period at the end of the sentence. Here’s a rule: Put a period at the end of every sentence that tells. Listen again; put a period at the end of every sentence that tells. Say that rule.”

Students respond: “Put a sentence at the end of every sentence that tells.” with the rule and then the teacher verifies:

Teacher verifies: “Yes, we put a period at the end of every sentence that tells.”

 

Differentiation tip: If when Mr. Abernathy pre-assesses his students and determines that several students don’t understand when a sentence tells something and when it is a sentence that questions, that pre-requisite skill must be taught first to those students in a small group setting.

 

Step Four: Supporting Details

Teacher:  “Now we need supporting details. Supporting details tell more. Tell me more about the main idea.” Call on individual students. In the example we are writing, tell me some details about why you like to make new friends.

As before, if a student gives an incomplete idea, ask them to tell you more. If they do NOT use a complete sentence, acknowledge the good idea and ask them to say it in a complete sentence. Model a complete sentence if necessary. Write the sentences on the board.

Example:

Student 1: When I make new friends I learn new things. (Have students start each sentence with “When I make new friends _____________.”) Write the sentence on the board

Teacher: Good. You were specific and you put in the form of a complete sentence. When I make new friends I learn new things. What new things have you learned from your friends?

Student 1: It is interesting.  I have learned about their holidays which are different than mine. I learned what it’s like to be in a big family.

Teacher: So, in your first sentence I learned that you like making new friends because you learn new things. Now, I know 2 of the new things you learned were about their holidays and you also learned what it’s like to be a member of a big family. Can you tell me that in a sentence(s)?

Student 1:  Some of the new things I learned were about my friends’ holidays. I also learned what it is like to be part of a big family.(Write the sentence on the board)

Teacher (As you’re writing, say, again):  "I started the sentence with a capital letter. Remember the rule. The first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter. Say the rule." Signal

Student 1: "The first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter.

Teacher Verifies: "Yes, the first word of a sentence starts with a capital letter."

Teacher: "This sentence tells, so, again, I put a period at the end of the sentence. Here’s a rule: Put a period at the end of every sentence that tells. Say that rule." Signal.

Student 1: "Put a period at the end of every sentence that tells."

Teacher Verifies: "Yes, put a period at the end of every sentence that tells."

Get a total of 2 or 3 supporting sentences from several individual students, but choose sentences from one student to write on the board.

Teacher: "That is great information and again, you put in the form of complete sentences."  Call on another student

Student 2:"I like making new friends because I get to play more games."

Teacher: "Can you tell me more about the kinds of games you play with your friends?"

Students 2: "We play video games and we play baseball."

Teacher: "Great answer. Nice details. From our first sentence I learned that you like making new friends. Now, I learned that you like making new friends because it gives you the opportunity to play more games like video games and baseball. Can you give me that in a sentence(s)?"

Student 2: "I like making new friends because I get to play more video games. I also get to play baseball."

 

Step Five: Conclusion

Teacher: “Now, we need a conclusion, or concluding sentence. A concluding sentence finishes the paragraph. Tell me how you would finish up your paragraph?”

Student: “I am glad I am friendly because making new friends and learning new things is fun and exciting.”

Teacher writes the sentence on the board reviewing rules for sentence writing as above.

The final paragraph on the board would look like this:

     My favorite thing about myself is my personality. I like how friendly I am and how I make new friends quickly.  When I make new friends I also learn new things. Some of the new things I learned about were my friends’ holidays. I also learned what it is like to be part of a big family.I am glad I am friendly because making new friends and learning new things is fun and exciting.

 

Step Six: Student Review

Teacher: “Let’s review what we did:”

Teacher: “First, we wrote a main idea or topic sentence that told what the paragraph would be about. What did we write first?”

Student: “A main idea sentence.”

Teacher:  “Yes, a main idea sentence.  Next, we wrote supporting sentences that told more about the main idea. What did we write next?”

Student: We wrote supporting sentences that told more about the main idea.

Teacher: “Yes, we wrote supporting sentences that told more.  Last, we wrote a conclusion that finished the paragraph. What did we write last?”

Student:  “We wrote a conclusion that finished the paragraph.”

Teacher: “Yes, a conclusion that finished the paragraph.”

Teacher: For each sentence, we followed these rules.  The first rule is we indented the first sentence of the paragraph.  Say the rule?”

Student: “Indent the first sentence of the paragraph.”

Teacher: “Yes, indent the first sentence of the paragraph.” The second rule is we started every sentence with a capital letter. Say the rule.”

Student: “Start every sentence with a capital letter.”

Teacher: “Yes, start every sentence with a capital letter.” The third rule is we put a period at the end of every sentence that tells. Say that rule.”

Student:  “Put a period at the end of every sentence that tells.”

Teacher: “Yes, put a period at the end of every sentence that tells.”

 

Follow up:

Have the student write down the paragraph. Continue to use this instructional format as a model for the students’ next five writing assignments.  The teacher should model each assignment as above.  During the fifth repetition, (adjust according to student needs and assessments) upon completion of the model paragraph, erase what you wrote on the board and have students write their own paragraphs.

Conclusion:

An effective strategy for instruction is to break the information into the smallest units of information and then teaching those units in the proper sequence and checking for mastery. The six steps above are examples of how this can be applied to paragraph writing and is effective both as strategy for introducing students to this information the first time and for struggling students.

Next Blog Post: How to manage independent learning for paragraph writing

Writing— Still a Needed Skill in the 21st Century

Writing

During a recent training teachers and leaders answered this question, “Which academic skill has helped you the most overall? Helped you moved forward and upward?”  The most frequent answer was writing. 

Why?

Answers vary.  Here are some of the more common responses:

  • It helps me clarify my thoughts
  • It allows me to share my ideas clearly with my supervisors and team members
  • It creates a document to which people can refer for guidance

Connected to Success

Writing may be by far the single academic skill most closely associated with college and work success.  We know this, but yet, look at the following statistics from the Alliance for Excellent Education (2011)—Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment. They are causes for concern:

  • Poor writing skills cost businesses 3.1 billion annually (National Commission on Writing, 2004)
  • Only one out of four twelfth-grade students are proficient writers (Salahu-Din, Persky, and Miller, 2008)
  • Nearly one-third of high school graduates are not ready for college-level English composition courses (ACT, 2005)
  • College instructors estimate that half of high school graduates are unprepared for college-level writing (Achieve, Inc. 2005)
  • College graduates earn 70 percent more than high school graduates (Taggart et al., 2001)
  • More than half of adult scoring at the lowest literacy levels are dropouts (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005)

More and more colleges are requiring well developed writing skills, research capabilities and thinking skills. This means we need to provide students with strong skills during their k-12 experience.   Students need to learn how to:

  • Write Expository, descriptive, and persuasive pieces
  • Pre-write, how to edit, and how to re-write a piece before it is submitted and, often, after it has been submitted once and feedback has been provided.
  • To present arguments clearly, substantiate each point, and utilize the basics of a style manual when constructing a paper.
  • To write free of grammatical, spelling, and usage errors.

Next Blog: How to write a paragraph in six easy steps

We will stay here all day until you get it right!

5 to 1 Ratio

 

“You all know how to line up, so I don’t know why you are not doing it!”

“Quiet down now! Sit down, please!”

“How many times do I have to tell you not to yell out?”

“We will stay here all day until you get it right!”

I was walking through a building with a principal and these were just some of the comments we heard during our 15 minute walk.  The last line is always my favorite. It was directed at students lining up to go back to class after lunch.  I thought to myself, “Is that really a punishment to students? Not going back to class?”

The situation became a bit more surreal, as the principal stopped and said to me, “Give me a minute, I need to fix this.”  He then proceeded to repeat what the teacher had said and done, but louder and with additional gesticulations.

Behavior is an integral part of culture. When we can change the behavior of people they will change the culture.  

How can we change behavior?

Here is a very simplified approach:

First, identify the behavior you want—what do you want to see?

Second, reinforce the heck out of it—be specific!

Positive to Negative Ratio

Research is pretty clear that there should be a 5:1 ratio between positive interactions and negative interactions:

“Parents and teachers should strive to achieve the “magic ratio” of 5:1 positive interactions with children because higher ratios of positive to negative interactions have been found to predict favorable attitudes to work and relationships and are a component of an effective approach to classroom management.” (Fabiano et al , 2007)

The comments overheard at the beginning of this post are examples of negative interactions. So, what does a positive interaction look like?

“Thank you for sitting down and getting right down to work.”

“Mary, you are so good, raising your hand and waiting to be called on.”

“Bobby, thank you for quietly lining up.”

Now what? Monitor!

We have identified the behavior we want:  a ratio of at least 5:1 positive to negative teacher student interactions.

We have established what a positive interaction looks/sounds like and what a negative interaction looks/sounds like.

Now we need to monitor this behavior or lack of this behavior in the classroom.   What we monitor is what grows! Here is a simple, low-tech strategy. During your classroom visits bring a stopwatch or use timer app on your smart phone.  Count how many positive and negative interactions you hear over a 30 to 60 second time span.  That should give you a good sample of what is happening in that classroom.  Share your observation with the teacher.  If the ratio is on target, reinforce the behavior. If it is not, be specific on the feedback and determine the “why.”    

If you see a pattern of similar behavior across the building, consider providing professional development. The professional development should address the behavior observed during the visits providing skills and strategies. It should close with a clear call to action that provides a clear picture of the behavior you expect from staff.  Then monitor and see if interactions have changed. Provide feedback and reinforcement.

What’s good for the goose is good for the gander

People are people, student or teacher.  If a high ratio of positive to negative interactions help change student behavior, it will also change staff behavior.  That means leaders should be thoughtful in how they interact with their staff, just as they ask teachers to be thoughtful in how they interact with their students. 

Reflect on your staff interactions or better yet, keep a log for a week and document how many positive interactions versus negative interactions.  Here are some factors to consider:

  • Who are you interacting with? How often?
  • Are you seeing the same people? Why?
  • Are your interactions positive or negative?
  • Do you have an agenda when you visit them?

Time is a precious commodity. Use your time with focus and purpose.

What Advertising can teach us about building culture

Adverstising

Creating an effective culture and context for you and your staff to work in is an important part of any leader’s responsibility. It is not an easy process to create or change a culture, while at the same time it is not impossible. Like most change initiatives it involves reflection, planning and effective implementation. 

Advertising and Culture

Here is a question that is fun to ask people and makes a point (also a great way to figure out ages of the people you are asking).   Below are the first parts of some ad slogans. See if you can finish them.  The answers with the years they ran will be in the following paragraph.

  • Winston tastes good…
  • You deserve a break today, so get…
  • Plop, Plop, Fizz, Fizz…
  • Where’s the …

Answers:

  • Winston tastes good, like a cigarette should (1954 -72)
  • You deserve a break, so get up an d get away at McDonald’s (1971-75)
  • Plop, Plop, Fizz, Oh What a relief it is (Alka Seltzer 1970’s)
  • Where’s the beef? (Wendy’s 1984)

How can it be that these ad campaigns ran over 40 years ago, but we still remember them? Advertisers are great at creating a message and making it part of a culture.  They take their message and drum it into our heads via jingles, commercials, print ads, billboards and these days via our mobile devices.  Leaders need to so the same thing!

I have a Mission Statement, what can I do with it?

In most cases, organizations have a mission statement, but it doesn’t get used well. Lots of work goes into creating it—a committee is set up, input solicited, draft created and reviewed and then a final approval-- and then too often, it is posted on a wall and forgotten.  An investment of so many people over such a length of time shouldn’t be wasted.  So, have an end game in mind when you are creating a mission statement.

How would an advertiser use a mission statement? Here is one suggestion. Review your mission statement and pull out a tagline that can be easily used.  Below are some examples:

Mission Statement #1:

To achieve our vision, we will prepare our students to become independent learners with the desires, the skills, and the abilities necessary for lifelong learning. This will require creating a learning environment which is centered around students, directed by teachers, and supported by home and community.

Possible Tagline: We prepare our students to become independent and lifelong learners

Mission Statement #2

The mission of XXX School, a diversified community of individuals, is to ensure that each student achieves his/her full potential through educational experiences utilizing technology within a nurturing and motivating environment in partnership with family, business, and community.

Possible Tagline: We ensure that each student reaches their full potential

Here are some suggestions on how to use the tagline daily:

When you see students engaged in learning you can say:

  • You are doing a great job paying attention to your teacher. That is the way to become an independent and lifelong learner (Mission Statement #1)
  • When you pay attention such good attention to what you are learning you are on your way to reaching your full potential! (Mission Statement #2)

When you want to express behavior expectations:

  • Lifelong learners don’t interrupt, but pay attention and ask questions (Mission Statement #1)
  • If you want to reach your full potential we must listen and ask questions (Mission Statement #2)

Other ideas:

  • Display your mission statement and tagline prominently in your hallways and classrooms. Refer to it during the day.
  • Display your tagline on your letterhead and memos
  • Close out your memos and notes to staff with your tagline or some form of it
  • Use it as a positive reinforce of student and staff behavior—You are being such a great independent learner (Mission Statement #1) or You really are reaching your full potential today (Mission Statement #2)

Engage your people

Last week I was invited to do some training with a district’s leaders about managing change. We spoke about engaging people in the process. We agreed that change can be a chaotic process and that people engage and join the movement the original vision often changes.

During the discussion one of the principals shared a great idea to engage staff.  She asked each of her teachers to create a sign with these words along the top: #WhyITeach. Each teacher was invited to list a reason and post the sign on their classroom door.  What was the result?

  • Teacher had to reflect on what they do and why they do it.  It developed a sense of purpose and focus. It rekindled passion in some cases.
  • That passion was shared with anyone and everyone who walk through the hallways
  • It created a sense of community and purpose
  • Staff and students felt pride in being part of their school
  • It changed the culture through advertising! (and it may have planted some seeds that will grow into future teachers)

Conclusion:

Leaders need to get their message out there. They can learn some valuable lessons from advertising.  Create a clear message that represents your values. Identify the people you want to affect. Get your message out there by embedding it in the daily routine of the staff. 

FIVE LEADERSHIP LESSONS I LEARNED FROM BRO. CARL

Basketball Algebra

 

Bro. Carl Tershak was my high school algebra teacher.  He was also my basketball coach.  Looking back I realize, like many teachers and coaches, he taught me a great deal. Early on he taught me the power of diversion. 

Focus:

Bro. Carl would come into class, books and lesson plan in hand. Before he could get started my hand would dart up with a question.  Was it about algebra? No.  It was about basketball.  I knew he loved the sport and he loved coaching it.  It was something close to his heart and most importantly, he loved talking about it. Sometimes the question was about a new strategy or the last game.  It didn’t really matter. Bro. Carl was off for 30 minutes or so—and that meant no algebra.

That all ended one day when he came into class, slammed his book down on the desk and barked out to me, “You! Back of the room!  And I don’t want to hear a word out of you.”  Forty Five minutes later he breathed a sigh and confessed, “It was the only way I knew to keep you from distracting me and getting us all off topic.”

Leadership Lessons Learned: People may try to divert your attention and redirect you.  Don’t let them!  Stay focused.  Keep your group focused. Encourage questions, but not every question needs to be answered immediately. Prioritize!

Encouragement:

I may be the worst basketball team player ever from my high school!  I often tell people that I could have worn my clothes under the warm-ups—I rarely went in.  I wasn’t a good dribbler or shooter.  But, I wanted to be and I wanted to be on the team. Bro. Carl saw that and encouraged me.  He had some of the good players spend time with me teaching, coaching and encouraging me. And then the impossible happened—I made the team.  Looking back, I know I wasn’t good enough, but Bro. Carl saw and recognized my desire and determination.  He didn’t expect any less from me and at the same time was realistic.  He treated me like any of the other players. He was honest about my play time.  He always made me feel supported and part of the team.

Leadership Lessons Learned: Recognize the passion in people. Fan their dreams. Set high expectations and do what you can to support them.  Their loyalty and appreciation will last a lifetime.

Equations:

My most vivid memory of Algebra class is this rule: What you do to one side of the equation you need to do to the other side of the equation.  That is what the equal sign means.  When you don’t your answer is wrong.

We all have had the moment of terror when you are asked up to the blackboard (I guess now days, it is a white board) and asked to solve the problem.  I can still hear Bro. Carl’s voice intervening, “if you add five to one side, what do you need to do to the other side?”  This principle of math has even a deeper meaning when applied to life in general. 

Leadership Lessons Learned:  Want people to listen to you? Listen to them! Want to influence others? Be open to influence yourself.  Relationships shouldn’t be one-sided. In the most effective relationships, both sides are affected and changed.

One Step at a Time

After a test or a homework assignment, Bro. Carl would put the most common mistakes up on the board and go over each problem.  He would always tell us to save our work, so we could review it and find where we went wrong.  Together we would go over the the problems and identify the errors made.  The most common feedback: Follow the rules. Take it one step at a time. This will make it easier to get a correct answer first time around and if not, it will make it easier to find where you made your mistake.”

Leadership Lessons Learned: Review your work. Look at the data.  Take it one step at a time. Find a process that works for you and your people and implement it with fidelity.  Learn from your mistakes.

Protect your People

After school there was always a choose-up game, often with students and staff playing side by side.  It was a great way of expanding our perceptions of others outside the roles of student/teacher.  There was one teacher that often joined us—we will call him Jim.  Jim was a big guy and not always a happy person.  During these games he often ran rough shod over us—getting a little more physical than necessary, especially since his opponents were high school students. Bro. Carl often didn’t play, but watched these games. One day, after a particularly rough play by the other teacher, he joined the game.  Bro. Carl, a big man himself, enthusiastically protected his teammates from Jim. After several plays of such protection, Jim’s behavior changed. From that point on, the games became more enjoyable for all of us.

Leadership Lessons Learned: Work on expanding your view and understanding of others. Look past their roles and learn more about them.  Protect your people!  That doesn’t mean physically. It means protect them with your guidance, empower them with your actions and advocate for them with your influence.

Conclusion

There are lessons to be learned from our daily interactions with others. Be open to recognize them and learn from them.  Leaders are often focused on influencing others. Real leader are open to being influenced by others. That is how we all grow. 

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