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Information Glut and What You Can Do about It

Information Glut


Technology provides almost limitless access to information.  If you can get to a computer, you can “Google” anything.  Here are some examples:

School transformation:  176,000,000 results

Leadership: 763,000,000 results

If you are looking for effective leadership, then you get 19,800,000 results

Even when you search for something relatively specific the amount of information out there is overwhelming:

Effective leadership in public schools for school turnaround:  382,000

The result is Information Glut! Here is what we know: Information is useless without the knowledge of how it applies to context and how to use it.

Consider this scenario.  You need heart surgery.  You go to a friend and he or she “Googles” heart surgery and reads and studies all about the procedure over a course of several months. Would you trust them to do the surgery?  They have all the information, right? Of course, you would not. Information is not knowledge-they have not been able to apply the information within the right context. It doesn’t guarantee skill development.  That has to happen through use and practice.

Defining some terms:

Different people define words and terms differently (I know, I rival Captain Obvious).  For the purposes of this post, we are going to find definitions that Michael Fullan provides us in his book, “Leading in a Culture of Change,”—one of my favorites.   

  • Explicit knowledge is words and numbers that can be communicated in the form of data and information
  • Tacit knowledge  is skills, beliefs and understanding that are below the level of awareness (think intuition)

Here are some clarifying points:

  • Explicit knowledge is fact and figure (what we got when we “Googled” terms earlier)
  • Knowledge expressed in words and numbers represent only “the tip of the iceberg”
  • The Japanese view knowledge as primarily tacit (not easily visible and expressible)
  • Tacit knowledge is highly personal and hard to formalize (this makes it difficult to communicate it to others)
  • Tacit knowledge is deeply roots in a person’s experiences as well as their values and beliefs—trust has to be established before they share)

One of the goals of effective leaders is to help their people turn information into knowledge.

What’s a leader to do?

How does a leader facilitate knowledge sharing? We already determined that it is not just sharing information (explicit knowledge—remember the heart surgery example). 

A question I often ask educators is, “Tell me a time in your career when you learned the most.” The majority answer, “When I was a student teacher.” When pushed for why they reply that it was the immediate feedback, the exchange of information that was applicable to what they were doing at the moment  and access to the experience of a master teacher who gave them practical information on the how and why.  What can we learn from these answers?  Turning information into knowledge is a social process. Leaders NEED to have good relationships with their people and cultivate a culture where staff members can establish good relationships with each other.

Here are some actions leaders can take:

  • Commit themselves to constantly generating and increasing knowledge inside and outside of their organization
  • Provide people with  a moral purpose  that compels people to share information
  • Keep the user in mind. What are their needs and how will knowledge sharing benefit them
  • Help staff understand and accept the need for change and the importance of knowledge sharing to that change
  • Provide opportunities for learning by thoughtfully embedding appropriate activities in their day that will prompt knowledge sharing.  Create a situation or product, and/or set goals that necessitate people talking and sharing to be successful
  • Create environment in which people feel safe to communicate and share
  • Identify knowledge sharing as a responsibility of each staff person
  • Be active and lead the process—but don’t dominate it—allow opportunities for other leaders to evolve
  • Model effective and productive questioning, listening and feedback

Creating a knowledge-sharing culture is work and can’t be done from the top down. The leader can be the catalyst, but it is the people that ultimately effect change and in turn change the culture.  Provide embedded activities to allow for sharing, and enable people to share. Such changes can’t be mandated or managed. They are grown.   

Changing the context:

All of us have been participants in training—as participants, as trainers and more than likely as both. One of the frustrating facts for both the participants and the trainer is the realization that no matter how good the training, how enthusiastic the participation and all the good intentions, most of the information presented will never find itself into the workplace.  There are several reasons, but today we are going to look at just one. 

If you went to a course to learn a new language and you mastered that new language, but when you returned to your work or home nobody else was speaking that language, what would happen? You would find no use for it and your new skill would fade away. That is what happens when people return to their workplace.

Leaders must be thoughtful in planning change and professional development.  In addition to ensuring staff is getting the best information possible, they must also ensure they are returning to an environment that has been changed to allow staff to practice this new skill.

Fullan writes, “Information is machines, Knowledge is people.” Information without application or context is confusing.  Knowledge is information examined, digested and applied. It is shared.

Convert tacit to explicit

We already have established that we live in a time of information glut. It is everywhere and accessible --thanks to the internet.  Now that is not a bad thing or a good thing.  The good or the bad is how well it is used to help us achieve our goals-- to create purposeful change that has a positive impact.

Points to consider regarding the use of knowledge:

  • It must be  focused and aligned with the change desired
  • It should bring clarity to the situation-information glut brings confusion
  • It should shared across the organization with different people with different backgrounds and perspectives
  • It should motivate and excite—generate an internal commitment within individuals that carries over to the group
  • It should facilitate relationships and communication-both formal and informal conversations about how it can be used or what happened when it was used

What happens when we share knowledge?

  • People rely on others to listen and provide input
  • People are enabled to share their insights freely and discuss concerns
  • Groups form and self organize
  • Trust and hope emerge, satisfaction increases
  • People feel safe to explore new ideas


 People are the factor that converts information into knowledge that can be used. Real Leaders model knowledge sharing.  They make it a valued and integral element of their culture.  It should become part of a rubric of how teams and their members are assessed. 

Mrs. McGreevy and the Quest for Independent Learners

Mrs. McGreevy had a great question for her coach during the regular monthly visit. Her students were progressing, however she felt that each time she introduced a new concept, she was, in a sense, starting from scratch. Concepts she felt she had taught her students were somehow not transferring over to the next skill or lesson. As a result, although students were learning, it was still taking too long to reach mastery each time. 

She shared her concerns with Julie, her coach.  Mrs. McGreevy told Julie her goal was to create independent learners.  She wanted to identify how to provide effective instructional support while her students were learning important reading and writing strategies, while at the same time empower her students to gradually assume a greater degree of responsibility for learning.

What Mrs. McGreevy was describing was the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model, although she didn’t know it.  She was on the right track and needed some personalized professional development to provide strategies that would help her achieve her goal.

Julie shared the charts below with Mrs. McGreevy and walked her through each step.

Mrs McGreevy and the Gradual Release Model 1


Four Steps of the GRR Model

Step One: Teachers first model and then describe the use of a new,specific strategy

Step Two: Students practice applying the strategy while the teachers provides assistance and feedback (guided practice)

Step Three: Students are provided opportunities to practice the strategy independently. This step could also include collaborative peer small groups.

Step Four: Students move into the stage where they are able to independently apply the strategy in new situations

Mrs. McGreevy and Julie also explored what the GRR Model is not.  This added extra clarity for Mrs. McGreevy. For example, Julie shared that the GRR Model is not just telling.  Telling is not teaching.  It is not just a model and then expecting students to move on alone. For example, providing an abundance of teaching examples for a new math concept/strategy and then expecting the students at their desks to immediately complete a worksheet on that new learning. Julie and Mrs. McGreevy discussed how a model and a test leave out the critical step of guided practice where teachers must be 99% certain that students have mastered the new concept before moving on to independence. Julie reminded Mrs.  McGreevy that practice doesn’t make perfect, practice makes permanent and if we practice something the wrong way, we remember it the wrong way. She provided Mrs. McGreevy a guideline: Students don’t go on to independent learning until we are certain they will practice the new learning correctly.

They also spoke about pitfalls to be avoided.  A common mistake when students make an error is to ask them what they did wrong or what step did they leave out. Julie explained that she has also often heard teachers asking a student to ‘try again.’  If students knew the correct response the first time, they would have given the teacher first time correct responses. Asking them to try a wrong answer again or explain it causes students to guess at the answer. It does not encourage students to use the new learning.  What Mrs. McGreevy liked was that the GRR provided numerous opportunities for practice and guidance that would help her students reach not only independence but develop strategies they could apply to other subjects and classes.

Mrs. McGreevy still had some questions and that is something Coach Julie loved. Questions mean people are engaged.  So, next they took a look at the actual model and then the key principles of the model.

The Model

 GRR 2

Julie explained that the Gradual Release of Responsibility model of instruction suggests that cognitive work should shift slowly and intentionally from teacher as model, to joint responsibility between teacher and student, to independent practice and application by the learner. Using the graphic above Julie and Mrs. McGreevy examined each of the phases of the model:

Focus Lesson - Teachers establish the lesson’s purpose and model their own thinking to illustrate for students how to approach the new learning.

Guided Instruction – Teachers strategically use questions and assessment-informed prompts, cues, direct explanations, and modeling to guide students to increasingly complex thinking and facilitate students’ increased responsibility for task completion.

Productive group work – collaboration – Teachers design and supervise tasks that enable students to consolidate their thinking and understanding – and that require students to generate individual products that can provide formative assessment and information.

Independent tasks – Teachers design and supervised tasks that require students to apply information they have been taught to create new and authentic products. This phase of the instructional framework is ideal for the "spiral review" (distributed practice over time) that so many educators know their students need, and it is a way to build students' confidence by allowing them to demonstrate their expanding competence.

Key Principles of the GRR Model

Julie started this phase of the coaching session by identifying the key principles of the GRR Model and before explaining them, asked Mrs. McGreevy to first take 2 minutes and write what she thought each of the principles meant.

After discussing Mrs. McGreevy’s ideas, Julie provided the following explanation of the key principles:

Key Principle #1 -Cognitive Apprenticeship is when the teacher takes on the role of the expert who models and “thinks aloud” as he or she demonstrates “how to” do something. Students become more proficient as the expert provides guidance /coaching as needed and controls the transfer of cognitive responsibility to the student. The expert must continually assess to know where each student is in the process.

Key Principle # 2 – Scaffolding is when the teacher provides a structure that supports an activity, mental or physical, while development of skill is ongoing. Scaffolding takes the form of hints, cues, questions, and discussion that are designed to assist the learner to develop task related skills. The process of scaffolding is almost entirely dependent on the expert’s understanding of the learner’s ability and knowledge at any given point.

Key Principle # 3: Zone of Proximal Development suggest learning tasks should be situated  just beyond what a student can accomplish alone, but not to a level of impossibility  and employ peer and teacher scaffolding to reach appropriate levels of engagement.

Key Principle # 4: Proleptic Teaching is defined as teaching in anticipation of competence. A proleptic teacher could be described as one who has high expectations and believes in his or her student’s ability to meet those expectations -- REGARDLESS of a student’s perceived ability or level of intelligence. The teacher ASSUMES the student is capable and the teacher has the tools to scaffold the tasks until the student has mastered the concept.


Mrs. McGreevy and Julie both thought it had been a productive coaching.  The question had arisen from real needs in the classroom.  Clear and concise information was shared and coached in subsequent visits. 

When asked for one take-away from their discussion Mrs. McGreevy said, “I learned we must design carefully sequenced scaffolded lessons in a step by step manner, monitor and reflect on our teaching as we go along and make sure that all of the students are on the same journey where we think we are going. 

Friday Reflection: Celebrations

celebrating kids


It was the end of a particularly difficult week.  Mr. Thomas and his staff were gathered in the library for their regular weekly celebration.  He looked out on the faces of all his staff—teachers, para-professionals, counselors, office and maintenance people.  They were tired.  He asked the weekly invitation that had become a tradition in his school. “Let’s celebrate!”

People started to share good news ranging from the improvement of an individual student to less office referrals to students showing more respect for the building.  They shared about positive contact with a parent and trying a new instructional strategy that worked. Each time someone share the group applauded.

In short, they took inventory of the good that had happened during the week, even a difficult week. By the end of the 10 minutes celebration tired faces were smiling facing and there was a little extra spring in their step as they left the building.

The power of a positive culture

Three years ago, it had been a different story.  The school had been listed as an underperforming school and it had been placed on a list of potential state takeovers.  Student performance had been spiraling downward. 

Mr. Thomas knew if he was going to turn the school around he would need help. He put together a team of his school leaders and they tackled the issue by first identifying problems and challenges.  They identified several issues, but chief among them was a negative culture.  People felt like they worked hard, but were getting nowhere.  They felt no sense of accomplishment.  They felt under attack and underappreciated. Teachers left the school (and sometimes the teaching field) and those that stayed were not especially motivated. They did feel any pride. They were hurting.

The group did some investigating and discovered the following information*:

  • Students achieve higher scores on standardized tests in schools with healthy learning environments. 
  • A positive school climate is recognized as an important target for school reform and improving behavioral, academic, and mental health outcomes for students (Thapa et al., 2012).
  • Schools with positive climates tend to have less student discipline problems (Thapa et al., 2013) and aggressive and violent behavior (Gregory et al., 2010), and fewer high school suspensions (Lee et al., 2011).
  • Research has also shown associations between school climate and lower levels of alcohol and drug use (LaRusso et al., 2008), bullying (Meyer-Adams & Conner, 2008; Bradshaw et al., 2009), and harassment (Attar-Schwartz, 2009).
  • School climate can promote positive youth development. Favorable school climate has been linked with higher student academic motivation and engagement (Eccles et al., 1993), as well as elevated psychological well-being (Ruus et al., 2007; Shochet et al., 2006).
  • Schools promoting engaging learning environments tend to have fewer student absences (Gottfredson et al., 2005) and increased improvements in academic achievement across grade levels (Brand et al., 2003; Stewart, 2008).
  • Schools where educators openly communicate with one another, feel supported by their peers and administration, and establish strong student-educator relationships tend to have better student academic and behavioral outcomes (Brown & Medway, 2007).
  • School climate efforts also have the potential of increasing job satisfaction and teacher retention, which is a major concern given the high rate of turnover in the field of education (Boe et al., 2008; Kaiser, 2011).

Mr. Thomas working alongside his team explored different ideas to improve school culture.  Their answer: Celebrating

The power of celebration!

Working together the idea of a weekly celebration took form.  Here were some of the factors they uncovered.  Celebrations:

  • Unite people
  • Keep a focus on the positive and nurture a sense of pride
  • Recognize the achievement and growth of individuals and the group
  • Creates a sense of belonging
  • Allows time to review progress toward goals and objectives
  • Celebrate workand develop an “culture of gratitude”
  • Build enthusiasm—it helps people stay determined and optimistic
  • Keep people energized
  • Develop staff resilience
  • Provide an opportunity to relax and unwind
  • Improve productivity
  • Promote loyalty and job satisfaction
  • Break down barriers among staff and builds an appreciation of diversity


Mr. Thomas and his team introduced the idea of celebrations to the school and implemented the weekly celebration. Results were not immediate, but over time the culture changed.  People began to keep “celebration journals” and track of all their good work. People were motivated. Pride grew and spread.

Mr. Thomas understood that the challenges facing his school were complex and that no one strategy would be a panacea. He knew that as they worked on creating a positive culture, other new ideas needed to be explored, researched and introduced. Strategies to improve instruction, use data more effectively, manage behavior, and engage families all had to be implemented correctly.

School culture and celebrations were a good place to start!

*  National Education Association IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL CLIMATE RESEARCH BRIEF (Lindsey O’Brennan & Catherine Bradshaw, Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence)

Inspiration: A Key to Change

If your actions inspire others


Leaders must inspire! When we are inspired we dream. When we are inspired we create. When we are inspired we achieve.

Inspiration is even more essential when we are asking people to change. Here is a truth that bears repeating again and again. People want to be part of something that is bigger than them, part of a mission that bonds them with others who feel the same way and part of something that will make a difference.  They want to be inspired.

16 points on how to inspire

  • Provide the why behind what you are asking
  • Lead by example and share in the hard work
  • Have high expectations for people - challenge them to excel
  • Be honest and sincere: deliver on promises
  • Invite people to the table and allow them real input and power
  • Be there for them-provide  the needed resources and guidance
  • Show gratitude: Celebrate daily achievement
  • Share the credit
  • Provide hope especially during trying times—encourage them
  • Protect and advocate for your team
  • Listen
  • Inspire others by taking a stand for what you believe in. 
  • Care about others
  • Be open to be inspired yourself
  • Share your experiences
  • Model Learning

This list isn't definitive. Reflect. Identify strategies that work for you. Share what you have learned. Inspire others to think and grow. 


In a prior post, we said that trust is the glue that holds people together.  I read somewhere that “inspiration is the oil that greases the work; without it, the engine burns out and the whole enterprise comes to a sudden stop.”

If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader. John Adams

Baby Steps

baby steps


Change isn’t easy. This seems to be the battle cry for so many leaders and new initiatives! How many times have we announced this to people with whom we work and how many times have we heard it from others? Change isn’t easy, but that awareness alone doesn’t help.  Here are three truths about change:

  • Provide the why and the how
  • Change is best managed on a daily basis with small, incremental steps
  • It is about people, not things

Why and How:

People are happier and more engaged when they know the “why” behind the assignments they are given.  Fullan talks about moral purpose and moral purpose give people the “why.”  People feel part of something bigger than themselves. They want to contribute.

Effective leaders explain to people that what they are being asked to do contributes to the bigger picture. That each task, each role, each person is important, essential.  And explain WHY that is so. 

In addition to knowing the “why” people want to know the “how.”  They want to know how this change is going to affect them. What will be expected of them? How does their day change? How does your expectation of them change?

Effective change leaders provide a coherent picture—that means they connect the dots so everyone sees the bigger picture.

Baby Steps:

Change generates big questions and concerns. How should leaders proceed? Baby steps. Change can’t be scheduled as a certain part of the day or as an activity.  It needs to be embedded in the daily work of people—it needs to become the daily routine.  People should be provided with explanations, but more importantly, the change and accompanying behavior need to be modeled for them. They need to hear constructive feedback that is supportive and immediate. Just like a baby’s first step, in the beginning they need support, someone holding their hand, but pretty soon they are walking and then running on their own.

Hate to mix metaphors, but think of the butterfly effect. It is the concept that small causes can have large effects. Attention to detail during the baby steps has a large impact on how the change efforts progress.

People not Things

It is easy to forget when we are leading a change effort that we are talking about changing people, not things—not just a process, people. People should not be treated like pieces on a chess board that we can move and use as we like. 

If you are trying to change your culture, you need to change how people interact. If you are trying to change outcomes, you need to change what people have been doing and how they are doing it so they achieve the new outcomes.  Change is about people not things.  You don’t have to reason with a thing. You don’t have to provide an explanation to a thing. You don’t have to engage with a thing or make them feel important and valued. You do with people. Two rules:

  • How would you want to be treated? What would motivate you?
  • Empower people. Let them know they are important.

Some big ideas:

  • Make sure the changes are necessary and will result in better outcomes for both the people you are asking to do the work and for the organization as a whole.
  • Collect data and identify the problem and clearly define it. Too often leaders find themselves in the middle of a maelstrom of confusion and address a problem, but not the right problems or they rush forward with a solution that makes sense and sounds good, but it doesn’t address the real problem. Sometimes you have to go slow to go fast.
  • You don’t have to do everything alone and by yourself. Invite people in to help. Model how people work with each.
  • Create a plan with final outcomes, milestones and a timeline. It should be flexible, while at the same time providing structure and direction.  
  • Realize people will have different needs and be at different skills levels. Differentiate your support to meet the different needs.
  • Share and explain the plan and your expectations. Give the why and the how.
  • Embed desired behaviors into the regular day using baby steps first.
  • Make sure people have the resources needed to implement the plan.
  • Create an effective plan of professional development that includes monitoring and feedback, and supports the change.

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